Writing and editing scientific publications


For any scientific thesis, Master's or Bachelor's, bibliographical references should be included in the annex as a list of all documents and written sources used by the thesis author. The rules for describing those documents are established by the ISO standard PN-ISO 690:2002 (Information and documentation - Bibliographic references - Content, form and structure). This standard is intended for the in-text references as well as preparing the list of references to be put on the end of the thesis. When electronic document is referenced the standard used is PN-ISO 690-2:1999 (Information and documentation - Bibliographic references - Part 2: Electronic documents or parts thereof).

Below you will find some examples of bibliographical references, if you need more examples or want to reference documents not listed below, please use one of the internet guides How to cite References / The University of Nottingham or Bibliographic references and citations according to the norm STN ISO 690 a 690-2.

You should also know there are different citation styles in the world. The most popular are Chicago Style and Harvard Style.

Bibliography management tools (also known as citation or reference management tools) help you organize your research sources and generate bibliographies in muliple citation formats. All of the tools will help you organize your research references and all include a plug-in for word processing programs to format citations and create bibliographies. But some of the tools offer other features, such as support for collaboration, a web-based interface, and mobile applications.

Among the free bibliography managers worth mentioning is Mendeley , Zotero oraz EndNote Basic available for free as part of a Clarivate Analytics product subscription.

Mendeley is a PDF and citation manager that indexes and organizes your research library into a digital bibliography. The program includes a collaboration component that allows you to share citations with other researchers. Mendeley is both a desktop application and a web-based application.

Mendeley is a "freemium" service, offering a free basic plan and a premium service for an additional fee. The Mendeley Free Edition provides 2GB of personal storage space, 100 MB of shared library space, up to 25 collaborators, and up to 5 private groups.

Documentation and tutorials (https://www.mendeley.com/guides/videos):

EndNote Basic is software package for creating bibliographies and managing references. Most of research databases allow you to export citations into EndNote.

There are four versions available:

  • EndNote Basic (Free Version) is a no-cost limited web version with 21 styles and a limited number of filters and connection files. This version is available to anyone. A maximum of 50,000 references and of 2 GB of attachments is allowed.
  • EndNote Basic (Web of Science Version) is a limited web-based version available to Stanford faculty, students, and staff as part of our subscription to Web of Science. Like the free version of EndNote Basic, a maximum of 50,000 references and of 2 GB of attachments is allowed. In addition, the Web of Science version of EndNote Basic has over 6,000 styles and hundreds of filters and connection files.

Documentation and tutorials:

Zotero is a web-based, open-source citation management tool that is designed to store, manage, and cite bibliographic references, such as books and articles. In Zotero, each of these references constitutes an item. Items can be everything from books, articles, and documents to web pages, artwork, films, sound recordings, bills, cases, or statutes, among many others. Zotero is both a desktop application and a browser extension with plug-ins to word processing programs.

Zotero is available with basic features for free, with a fee structure for additional storage. Two options are available:

  • Zotero for Firefox, a Firefox browser extension.
  • Zotero Standalone is a desktop application that integrates with Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Firefox but without the integrated features of Zotero for Firefox.

Third-Party add-ons

CitationStyles.org is the home of the Citation Style Language (CSL), an open XML-based language to describe the formatting of citations and bibliographies. CSL is used by Zotero, Mendeley and Papers to add and edit citation styles.

Paper Machines is an open-source extension for the Zotero bibliographic management software. Its purpose is to allow individual researchers to generate analyses and visualizations of user-provided text, without requiring extensive computational resources or technical knowledge.

Documentation and tutorials:


Tables: extract from the standard PN-78/N-01222.04

Tables should be inserted in the text as close to the point of reference as possible. Tables larger than page size can not be broken over two pages, they should be printed separately and folded into the thesis.


The terms Figure and Table can be used interchangeably. If the text contains sets of illustrations you should use the name Figure for those and describe sets of alphabetical and numerical data as Tables. Tables should have titles. If we refer to them in the text they should also be numbered using Arabic numerals. Tables and figures numbering can be consecutive for the whole work (e.g., 1, 2, 3) or each chapter or appendix (e.g., 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2).


Tables should not have any empty frames. In the absence of data use the following symbols:

  • dash (-) - no occurrence;
  • zero (0) - there is an occurrence, however, in quantities smaller than the numbers that can be expressed in the table;
  • dot (.) - lack of information or lack of credible information;
  • zx mark - entry of data is impossible due to the layout or it’s ineffectiveness;
  • "In this" - means that not all elements of the sum were given


If the table does not fit on one page its number and title should be repeated over all the table parts placed on the following pages, with (continued) or (cont.) term added. If the table is placed horizontally (in landscape mode) on the opening of pages, the table title or column headings shouldn’t be repeated on odd pages.


Under each table you should provide bibliographic information and the page number of the original source the data was taken from, in the case of tables containing author's own work results - the words (author's own calculations) should be used.


Illustrations: extract from the standard PN-78/N-01222.04

Illustrations used in the thesis can be reproductions of:
  • works of fine arts (art illustration) developed specifically for a particular book or work,
  • photographic art,
  • photographic documents,
  • architectural drawings, charts, graphs, diagrams,
  • maps and plans.


The names of authors of maps, plans and diagrams should be shown on the editorial page, within illustration titles/bibliographical notes or in the list of illustrations. The names of the authors of photographic documents and drawings can be shown in the list of illustrations.


Illustrations should be inserted in the text as close to the point of reference as possible.


Illustrations numbering should be consecutive for the whole work or each chapter. In the case of several types of illustrations (eg. drawings in the text and photos on the folded pages) different types of illustrations should be numbered separately with appropriate abbreviations added. Illustrations should be numbered in Arabic numerals.


All illustrations should be titled, except in cases where the titles would duplicate long descriptions already contained in the illustrations.